Saturday, March 14, 2020

Fuel Tax Essay Example

Fuel Tax Essay Example Fuel Tax Essay Fuel Tax Essay Do you just want cheaper fuel to increase your income? To become a popular Government? Squeeze more profit for your firm? Protect the environment? Break car dependence? These questions are a sign of the ever-increasing pressure for and against a reduction in fuel tax. The governments reluctance to openly discuss its policy has caused a real clouding of the arguments causing a general sense of frustration. This essay addresses both sides of the arena in the pursuit of bringing clarity and reason to an emotional topic. This essay uses the term petrol as defined to be a flammable fuel used in internal combustion engines(Oxford Con Dic, 1989: 425), thus including diesel, as well as unleaded vehicles. The issues that are covered are externalities, tax, public transport, who the tax effects, and utility. The arguments are ordered against a reduction then for a reduction. Over the last 30 years, with the rise of environmental awareness, the externalities connected with the use of motor vehicles have caused major concern to society and has presented a strong argument against a reduction in petrol tax. Pigovian taxes are the best way to correct for the negative impact of externalities by taking into account the social costs of using petrol to such a great extent. These social costs: health, congestion, environmental breakdown and accidents all need correcting. Every time you burn petrol you generate pollution in the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, thus increasing global warming and health problems e.g. asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory disorders. Congestion causes lost opportunity costs from unproductive time wasted. Accidents cannot be measured accurately as the loss of intellectual productivity cannot account for future possibilities. The best way is to allocate efficiency with social cost added to the pricing model. : As we see in figure 1: The marginal private cost curve is MPC. D is also the marginal benefit curve. Marginal cost exceeds MPC. In a competitive market, output is Qo, price is Po. When a Pigovian tax is imposed to show the social costs, then MSC becomes the MC for suppliers decisions. The price rises to P1 and the quantity falls to Q1: the point of allocation efficiency (Parkin, King 1995: 527). With the market failure and the externalities addressed the government can gather the tax revenue and tackle the social costs with revenue generated, which brings the price into alignment with their external costs. To look closer at the nature of tax and its winners and losers will reveal that all the tax is past onto the consumer in accordance with its inelastic properties. As the rules of tax state, with the fall in quantity demanded being smaller than the price reduction (in percentages). The consumer will be saddled with the larger cut of tax in the short run and all the tax in the long run. Therefore, the consumer is paying for all the externalities and the firm that profits from supplying petrol: pays nothing. As seen above in figure 1, there is a dead weight loss, which is caused from the reduction in the quantity demanded. This welfare loss has been minimized, however, this shows the petrol sectors ability to sustain large tax increases. The lack of response by motorists to the increases in the price of petrol causes the tax to become very appealing for revenue generation. The quantity demanded does not drop much after a tax increase. This shows how large amounts of money can be raised easily. In 1999/2000, fuel duties (excluding VAT) raised à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½22.3 billion, which is 6% of the total governments revenue (HM Treasury 46: 2000). The market for fuel is able the bear a large tax charge and the extent of the market is sizable too. Six pence on all road fuel duties raises as much money as one penny on the basic rate of income tax (HM Treasury 44: 1999). The suppliers and the government are seen to raise huge amounts of revenue from highly taxed petrol. In response to the argument for a reduction in petrol tax as the large amounts of revenue generate seem excessive and appear to be public and private profiteering. With the revenue being re-invested in infrastructure as the government is committed to doing. In the Chancellors Pre-Budget Speech in November 1999, [we] are now in a position instead of the pre-announced 6 per cent escalator-to make our decisions Budget by Budget with the following commitment: if there are any real term rises in road fuel duties, the revenues will go straight to a ring-fenced fund for the modernisation of roads and public transport (Smith, 2000; 8) These pledged billions give the vehicle user a real choice. The need to break car dependency and shift back the demand curve back instead of a taxing shift along the demand curve will reduce drivers by more. See figure 2: The option of substitute transport will make the driver fell they do have a choice to private vehicles. Investment of the revenue from petrol tax is a great asset. Much more than the revenue from the mandatory car tax gives. These improvements are necessary, as the infrastructure needs modernizing. This alternative will drop demand by giving a substitute drivers can rely on. The haulage industry will use it to put its freight back on the railways, if confidence were restored. A solid public transport system reduces demand without tax by using the revenue to change behaviour on petrol reliance. People are not adverse to tax increases if they know where the money is being spent. There is no way to guarantee that the money allocated to spending on roads and public transport is actually going to be spent in these areas. With the state of the rail system, the amount of congestion and the crackdown on accidents by fines, which many see as a new source of revenue, we are not seeing the benefits from the high petrol taxes: the highest in Europe. See figure 3: Unleaded petrol UK 55.47 Netherlands 44.84 Italy 42.93 Germany 40.12 Austria 32.35 Spain 28.04 Figure 3. European petrol duty and VAT, pence per litre With these high prices drivers expect to see improvements. This is the essence of their frustration. The modernization the government speaks of has not shown many tangible results. The alternative transport needed has not improved enough to encourage drivers to alter their actions and onto public transport. The cost of living taken across different household groups shows that an increase on petrol tax hits the poorest car owner, as well as, rural dwellers (Smith, 2000: 4). These are the people that need a substitute of public transport. Their incomes and budget constraints are the most susceptible to price rises. The governments lack of results in modernizing and producing a good transport alternative are just rationalizations for easy revenue. As with firms supplying homogeneous product we should be aware of the likelihood for them to maximise their profits in the event of a reduction in petrol tax. If the government were to give a 10 percent decrease in fuel tax the firms would not pass on all the savings to the customer. The small differences in price on the petrol forecourt do suggest price fixing, although illegal, it is difficult to prove. The petrol suppliers might, for example, pass on an 8 percent reduction and profit from the other 2 percent. This is a problem in a homogeneous market with few firms, indicative of the markets for natural resources. Although petrol users are also trying to increase their position by fuel tax being reduced. The Government are looking after all interests. These three groups are all willing to maximise their utility. As well as income utility there is utility as a quantitative measure of psychological satisfaction (Etrzioni, Lawrence, 1991: 86) present. The chance of promotion from mak ing more profits, getting something cheaper, or covering short falls in other public services are all difficult to value in financial terms. The inter conflict of interest will not allow for mutually beneficial trade. Rational self-interest depends in which of these groups you are, and to the same extent if you think this is an argument for or against a petrol tax reduction. In conclusion, we have seen that the taxes on petrol are in place to correct externalities by bringing adding social costs to show the real cost of vehicle use. This in turn has shown the petrol market to be one of high taxation with its inelastic nature. The revenue generated would regenerate the public transport sector to allow for alternative travel, although governments have failed to deliver. Tax affects vehicle users who need a substitute for car travel the most. And finally we saw utility maximisation pulling the debate in all directions. Tax reduction maybe a personal issue but there are rational arguments which need addressing to come to a solution in the best interests of society.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

A GIS process to select a suitable site for locating a hospital in Literature review

A GIS process to select a suitable site for locating a hospital in London where ambulances can reach people within 10 minutes - Literature review Example The site should be big enough to accommodate a hospital with about 7000 rooms where about 800 beds can be placed and more than fifty two thousand hospital equipment and furniture. The stated rooms can appear to be incredibly many but with rooms needed for emergencies, offices, rehabilitations, outpatient and inpatient services; they cannot be enough. A site accommodating such a hospital ought to be as big as forty football pitches to ensure that there is even available space for hospital employees and patients’ families parking. Additionally, the hospital prospected has to have a number of towers to save on cost and land. Currently, most hospitals have to deal with congestion and extreme struggling incase more facilities are needed. Having a lot of land like that stated above ensures that the hospital can build all facilities required. Expansion of hospitals after their construction is always an unavoidable act. For this reason, there is a need of buying land as big as the one stated above to cater for expansion in the later years1. London has four major parts that include the southwest London, southeast London, northeast London and north central London. According to statistics, there are about twenty hospitals in each stated part but most are not newly build. Among these hospitals, a number are faced with difficulties of managing cleanliness. In choosing a site for constructing a hospital, it is essential to ensure that the site is near to multiple sources of water and power. It is essential to realize most hospitals around the London town centre are faced with problems related to water shortages since they did not take precaution during construction. Some locations may have all the other qualities but lack water. This should not be such a major problem since there are artificial build wells and boreholes that can supply the hospital with enough water.

Monday, February 10, 2020

IT Security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

IT Security - Essay Example For any information system to be operational, government mandated compliances need to be undertaken by the chief information officer (CIO) and government officers. For a system to pass these security compliances it must meet the criteria set for; the system boundaries for the hardware, software, users and interactions with the environment must be clearly defined so as to assess any threats. Therefore, a CIO must provide a plan of action for the system and also state any contingency measures needed in the case of a security threat. Moreover, the chief information officer then gets certification and accreditation from the government once this is achieved (Enloe, 2002). Information systems are required to be secure in order to facilitate business success and their resilience in the changing information society. This means that a CIO ought to ensure that the system is secure enough to deliver vital information and services at the right time with no compromise. This is because secure syst ems increase public confidence and trust in the organization and in their products or services. Information security also ensures that performance of all the stakeholders in the organizations from management to junior staff is effective (Bowen, Chew and Hash, 2007). In addition, security also reduces the chances of risk to the organization and protects the integrity of the information or data stored in the organization. In the design of an information system, the CIO needs to be aware of information security elements, which must be in line with government mandated compliance. Moreover, considering that security planning of a system it is very important for a CIO to know who accesses the system at any time, and thus, the role of an information system officer in the system needs to be understood and clearly defined (Enloe, 2002). The authorizing officers in the organization and other users including the management need to be issued with access codes for authorization. Through this he will track and know who accessed the system at what time and which information was accessed or modified with use of these codes. The CIO should provide the management with the capital estimates required in running and maintaining the whole system and the time required to change or upgrade the system. In addition, he must conduct awareness and training campaigns on the whole organizations. This is to educate the users of a system on the different types of security threats present and how to evade them. Thus, a CIO is required to conduct risk assessment for the organization management, and explain to the personnel and management how the system will meet the organization’s mission and goals (Enloe, 2002). To this effect, the CIO must design a system that provides as stated in NIST: â€Å"Information security protection from unauthorized access, use or disclosure, disruption and modification of information.† The system must also comply with the standards set up for policie s, procedures and guidelines by national law and legislations. The CIO is also responsible for developing and maintaining agency wide information security programs, policies and control techniques for the organizations systems. Moreover, he is required to develop disaster recovery management program, to

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Essay on Mark Twain a+ Grade Essay Example for Free

Essay on Mark Twain a+ Grade Essay Few people across america have not more than once come across the name of Mark Twain, a name spoken throughout the country for the 100 years since his death. Mark Twain is the best example of a great american author, foremost for his book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Few people past the sixth grade have not at least heard of Tom sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, Proving the impact this piece has had on America. Life wasn’t always peachy for Mark Twain though, Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Twain went through a cacophony of hardships on his way to fame. His father died when he was only eleven, and he was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament. He later got a job as a journalist which got him on his way to becoming an esteemed writer. Life after fame however brought more heartbreak than good with the death of his wife and later his wife. He took much pleasure in his four-legged friends however, and is well know as an avid cat lover. Twain is most well known for his piece The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It is an american classic, portraying young Tom sawyer and his friend Huck Finn in an adventure, ending in the capture of Injun Joe, a man who murdered the doctor and who had a cave full of treasures. Mark Twain pulls the reader in whilst keeping attention with chapters teeming with action, adventure, suspense and romance. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was followed by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, an exciting sequel that received just as much if not more praises from readers across america. Some may wonder what possessed Mark Twain as to why he became a writer, when the answer is quite clear. Upon his father’s death in 1846, Young Samuel Clemens was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament, in exchange for board and clothing. He then became a typesetter, setting the print for various newspapers in his hometown.He did that for another four years before writing small articles for his brother Orion’s small newspaper. Clemens moved to Nevada and worked as a miner in Virginia City before finding work at the local paper, The Territorial Enterprise, where he first used his pen name. Mark Twain was taken from the steamboat mans measuring cry that signaled water was deep enough for safe passage. Life after Fame was both sweet and sour for Mark Twain at this point. Though he rarely ever invited visitors into his home, Mark Twain truly enjoyed the company of his cats. It was even noted in an ad from Royal Crown Cola in the 1940s about Twains disposition and his love for his cats. It is stated that he lived with up to nineteen at one time. In 1905 one of Mark Twains cats, a big gorgeous black cat named Bambino, ran away and Twain was devastated. He offered a reward seeking the return of his cat. The cat was found by Twains secretary. Sadly, Twains last years were marked with depression, brought on by the death of a daughter, his wife and close friends. He began his autobiography in 1906, and it is unsure when it was actually finished after its recent discovery. He died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Redding, Connecticut, where he was buried on his wife’s family plot. It is indisputable the impact Mark Twain’s writing has had on society as a whole, his name scattered across america and known by millions. His two most popular books, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn have gone down in history as priceless american classics, and continue to be treasured more than one-hundred years after their creation.Fame and fortune was bittersweet for him however, and though he took much pride and joy in his esteemed feline friends, he went through a period of extreme loss shortly before his own death. It is a well known fact, that Mark Twain has left his mark on American History, and will be remembered for centuries to come.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Ethics and the Cheating Epidemic :: Critical Thinking Essays

Ethics and the Current Cheating Epidemic There is an epidemic of cheating in American universities. Students are finding easier and more efficient ways to cheat. Morals and morality are changing. Students, members of the younger generation, and teachers, members of the older generation, differ on what is cheating. Morality even differs amongst students. Some students still adhere to the traditional sense of morality, and find what other students do an abhorration of morality. This essay is a mostly a pathos and ethos argument that attempts to appeal to the reader’s sense of right and wrong by using so-called â€Å"authorities.† The first section is filled with pathos arguments designed to make the reader believe that the majority of college students are cheaters. Multiple sources are brought in to prove this, each with their own ethos and pathos. First is a freshman named John Smolik, and his words are incriminating for all college students. He says â€Å"Cheating IS an answer† (Clayton 20). This is nothing new. Cheating has always been an answer for students. Most of them get caught, however. The fact that a student says this, however, makes people think that he has cheated or that it is widespread. In fact, he is just expressing a personal opinion, which he is entitled to. The next ethical source is something called â€Å"The Center for Academic Integrity.† This source interviewed a small sample of students, about 7,000, on 26 small campuses. Now, when analyzing this source, one has to wonder why they chose such a small sample. If we do the math, that’s only 270 students per campus. My high school had more than 270 students. One could easily ascertain that the institution doing this study picked out only the results that they liked. Next, the author uses some loaded language which stands out: Add to that a pervasive change in societal values, and students can easily be snared if they lack a strong moral compass - as well as a campus where peers and administrators take a firm stand against dishonesty. (Clayton 20). Do you have a â€Å"Strong moral compass?† Are you a victim in the â€Å"pervasive change in societal values?† The Christian imagery is thick here. But the author does not stop there. He quotes a provost at Vanderbilt as saying, â€Å"No one cheated [in the 1960s]† (Clayton 21).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Elections, Political Parties, and Civil Society in Authoritarian Regimes Essay

Within many Authoritarian Regimes, the conditions are very similar and the political participation becomes severely limited. The following essay will attempt to briefly capture a few key characteristics of two countries in terms of elections, political parties, and the role of civil societies within the state. The two countries that I will be discussing are Iran and China. First of all, after reading page 80-81 in our Comparative Politics textbook written by Carol Ann Drogus and Stephen Orvis, it soon became clear to me that Authoritarian Regime structuring has a heavy political saliency in terms of elections, political parties, and the role of civil societies. It seems that if elections even manage to exist in an authoritarian regime, they do not determine who holds the majority of power in the state. For example, on page 80, the textbook discusses how 1906 a new democratic state within Iran was created in order to provide a real legislature with elections. This democracy was soon polarized, and the central state has limited sovereignty over the other provinces and was able to control most economic profit and most of the military power. Although elections were ushered into Iran’s political system, they had little influence on the government itself. On page 81, the textbook discusses how a left-wing prime minister named Mohammad Mosaddeq was elected in 1951, but due the primary regime’s influence and power, they overthrew this elected prime minister because he did not support their interests. This example shows that even if an election determines something within an Authoritarian Regime, this determination may not last for very long or may not have any power in the first place. An elected official such as Mosaddeq can be overthrown at any point if the people that truly hold the power within a state decide too. This brings me to the next topic of political parties. Within the country of China, it is clear to me that the political system of the Authoritarian Regime has created an extremely powerful political party with little to no opposition. Elections have almost no affect and are just a disguise for the Chinese Communist Party to make the real decisions affecting their country, especially in terms of the economy. As discussed on page 86, after a series of wars ended, the Communist Party of China soon created a Soviet-style command economy with a huge bureaucracy that controlled most of the society. This society is interesting because as time went by, more and more economic freedoms were created, but political freedoms became increasingly denied. It is ironic that one can live in China and possess private property, but when it comes to the decisions governing that person’s society and economic policy, that same individual will have zero rights whatsoever. The book also discusses how these socio-political conditions have created a sense of political uncertainty and fear. This brings me to my final topic of civil society. It is a huge risk for citizens within an Authoritarian Regime to form organized and nonviolent groups in pursuit of political reform. Citizens tend to fear the consequences of their actions and punishment from their government, and when they do attempt to reform, it tends to end up violent. For example, many protests within China in the past century have ended in massive bloodshed or violence. I do not recall ever hearing of a widely successful nonviolent civil society causing politically salient changes within an Authoritarian Regime. I believe that I have never heard of such a thing because civil societies do not have much impact on a society that is restricted by an Authoritarian Regime’s influence and political/economic desires.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Themes in Macbeth Essay - 1822 Words

In William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth evil is conveyed in many ways through characters, themes and settings. Many themes are explored in detail contributing hugely to the sense of evil with characters being used along with these themes to create evil within the characters. These themes and characters are shown in different settings at different times consequently affecting the mood and atmosphere of the play. In relation, Shakespeare uses characters in order to raise the appeal of themes being presented. A character which has the largest influence on the play is Macbeth. Macbeth is someone who is tortured by the pain of the words of those around him. Macbeth is influenced heavily by the three witches who prophesize that he is going to†¦show more content†¦She tells the sprits ‘Come to my woman breasts/And take my milk for gall’ so that she can get rid of all the kindness within her-blood and milk form her breasts- Shakespeare uses ‘direst cruelty’ to express the desperation running through Lady Macbeth and with this Shakespeare creates a very hell-like picture for the audience. However, eventually Lady Macbeth persuasion overcomes Macbeth and finally he agrees to kill Duncan. ‘Let light not see my black and deep desires’, this shows Macbeths ambitions are not of good intention and turns to the universe to express this ambition (about how gr eat it is) It also shows that even though he wants to kill Duncan, the audience is still finding Macbeth arguing whether or not to do it. Shakespeare also uses alliteration to emphasize the amount evil involved in this deed. In relation, Shakespeare shows Macbeth willing to jump the hierarchy of position. ‘We’d jump the life to come’ show the willingness to jump the hierarchy, which instantly shows the relation to the archangel which went against God and the hierarchy of Heaven to create his own land of chaos which is better known as hell. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is shown with even more evil to represent her will for Macbeth to complete the deed, ‘I have given suck and know how tender ‘tis to love the babe that milks me: I would while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked my nipple fromShow MoreRelatedThemes in Macbeth742 Words   |  3 PagesWithin Shakespeare s famous Macbeth there are many different themes that make the play the captivating mas terpiece that it is. The role of the supernatural is a very important element of Shakespeare s Macbeth. Just as important, the theme of masculinity is very dominant. 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